This section of the Primer started as a simple glossary, however it seems to be turning into a repository for all the bits I keep picking up.

Terms are usually Latin unless stated to be Japanese (Jp)


ABSCISSION - The process by which all trees and shrubs shed their leaves, flowers and fruit.

ACCENT PLANTS - Small plants or grasses used to enhance a displayed bonsai.

ACICULAR - Needle-shaped, slender and sharp-pointed.

ACIDIC - Applied to soil With a pH of between 0 and 6, 7 being neutral (opp ALKALINE).

ACUMINATE - Having a long, tapering point.

ACUTE - Sharp-pointed.

ADELGID - An insect closely related to aphids. Adelgids are mainly found on conifers and produce galls, or woolly masses, similar to wooly aphids.

ADNATE - Growing close to the stem.

ADPRESSED - Pressed into close contact without adhering.

ADVENTITIOUS - Growth eminating from an unusual place; eg, roots growing from a stem (see Epicormic)

AERIUS - Of the air, as with air-roots. Roots growing from the trunk, or a low branch, as opposed to Pnumataphores

ALBA, ALBUS - Latin, "white".

ALKALINE - Of a limy nature. Having a pH of between 8 and 14, 7 being neutral (opp ACIDIC).

ALPINE - A plant native to mountains, but generally any small-growing plant suitable for a rockery, etc. Often planted in saikei, or as an accent plant

ALTERNATE - A term applied to leaves or branches which do not grow out opposite one another.

Opposite and Alternate leaves.

ALTUS - Of high altitude, tall.


AMORPHOUS - Having no definite form.

ANGIOSPERM - Having a seed encased in a fleshy body, or fruit.

An Angiosperm, a Peach and a Gymnosperm, a pine cone. Showing the encased seed and the naked seed(s).

APEX - Top terminating point of a leaf or tree.

APICAL DOMINANCE - The tendency for young trees to put on growth at their top, to the detrement of the lower branches.

ARBORESCENS - With a tree like shape.

ARGENTEA - of silvery appearance.

ARIL - A glutinous covering that envelopes certain seeds, like the yew berry.

ASCENDING - Directed or rising upwards.

ASEXUAL - Reproduction without sexual contact, as cuttings, layerings, or by division of a plant at root level. Also known as Vegatative reproduction,


ATROPURPUREA - Purple, sometimes dark red. Usually refers to leaf colour.

The leaves of the copper beech

ATROVIRIDIS - Deep, dark-green colour.

AUGUSTUS - Important in size or appearance, imposing.

AUREA, AUREUS - Latin for "golden".

AUXIN - A growth hormone.

AWL - A pointed instrument for boring holes. Applied botanically to leaves similarly shaped.

AXIL - The angle at the junction of a leaf and stem.

AXIS - The main stem around which branchlets and leaflets grow.

BACCA (noun). A berry, a succulent seed vessel, filled with pulp, in which the seed is encased.

BACCATUS - Having a pulpy texture, (see Aril)

BANKAN - (Jp) Literally a Trunk with many curves.


BASAL - Growing at the base of anything.

BASAL SHEATH - The covering that encircles the base of pine leaves. Also referred to as fascicle or bundle.


Bees are the most important insect on the planet.

A Bumblebee.

The social behaviour of bees is varied. The honey bee is a social creature with swarms of many thousand individuals. Through Bumblebees with a hive of twenty, or thirty members, to the solitary bees such as the Mason, or Leafcutter bees. Each female solitary bee makes its own burrow, and nest, but you may find many bees chosing the same location to nest in.

BIENNIS – Biennial.

BIFID - Split sharply into two points.

BINAE - Used to describe pine trees whose leaves grow in twos in the same basal sheath.

BIPINNATE - When both the primary and secondary divisions of a branchlet or leaflet grow out like a feather. Also referred to as 'Composite'.

BONKEI - (Jp) Natural landscapes in a dish which may include figures and houses, which a SAIKEI should not.

BRACT - A leaf-like structure at the base of a flower cluster.


BUD - Young folded-up branch or flower.

BUD SCALES - The covering of winter buds.

BULB - An underground organ made up of fleshy leaves surrounding the next year’s flowerbud.

BULBILS - Small, bulb like organs found at the base of leaves, or in place of flowers. Also sometimes found on roots.

BUNA - (Jp) Beech.

BUNJING - (Jp) Literati style.

BURR - A large woody swelling on the trunk or main branches of a tree. Much-prized in woodturning to make bowls


A woody plant generally growing with more than one major stem, as opposed to the trees (usually) one.

CALCIPHOBE - A lime-hating plant - one that will not grow in chalky or alkaline soil, Azaleas and Rhododendrons are calciphobes, as are all Heathers. Calciphobes require a soil with a pH of less than 7. (opp CALCIFUGE). Try to use rainwater on them when watering, particularly in hard water areas.

CALCIFUGE - A lime-loving plant - Calcifuges require a soil with a pH of greater than 7.0. (opp CALCIPHOBE)

CAMBIUM - The layers of cells between bark and wood where new wood is formed.

CAMPESTRIS - Found in fields

Acer campestris, the Field Maple

CHESHUNT COMPOUND - A fungicide, may be considered organic, as it contains naturally occurring chemicals. A mixture of 2 parts copper sulphate and 11 parts ammonium carbonate. used to protect seedlings from fungal attack, particularly 'Damping off', where the stalk rots at soil level.

CHLOROPHYLL The green pigment in leaves.

CHOKKAN - (Jp) Formal Upright style

CILIATE - Having marginal hairs, literally "provided with eyelashes", as with young Beech leaves.

CLONE - The entire vegetatively-produced descendants from a single original seedling, i.e. by cuttings, layerings or division, from a single plant. These will have all the qualities of the parent plant, Group plantings should be formed this way.

COLUMNAR - Shaped like a column. Many conifers are columnar, as is the lombardy poplar. this is a trait best avoided in bonsai, as it is difficult to rectify either by wiring. or pruning.

COMPOSITE - A single leaf appearing to be made of smaller leaflets, as in Rowan, or Walnut.

A Rowan leaf.

CONE - The fruit of conifers.

CONICAL - Shaped like a cone, that is, with vertical section triangular and pointed and horizontal section and base circular, or of a form gradually tapering down at one end.

COPPICE - A form of forest management.

Trees cut back to the base, from the stumps (called Stools) of which numerous stout shoots are allowed to develop. These are cut as coppice wood or poles. Some trees, particularly among the conifers, will not produce such shoots. A similar form of forest management to pollarding. Also an area of forest which has been coppiced.

CORM - An underground storage organ formed by a swollen stem, lasting only one year and the next year’s arising from the old one.

COTYLEDON - The temporary "first leaf" of an emerging seedling. Plants are divided into two groups Monocotyledons having a single seed leaf, as with grasses and Dicotyledons having two.

CRENATUS - Serrated

CROCKS - Pieces of broken pot, stones, etc. used to aid drainage in pots. Generally not used in Bonsai, as mesh across drainage holes stops insect invasion.

CULTIVAR - "Cultivated variety", often written as CV, as in Pinus Sylvestris cv Bouvironensis. A variant arising from a wild species, or from a cross between species, which has been selected and grown for its agricultural or horticultural value.

CUPULE - A cup-shaped holder such as that holding an acorn.

CUTTING - A piece of a plant induced to grow roots and become a new plant.

DAMPING OFF - A fungal attack which causes seedlings to rot a soil level, killing them.

DECIDUOUS - Applied to a tree that sheds its leaves annually through the process of abscission

DECUMBENT - Lying down.

DENDROLOGY - The study of the age of trees by counting their growth rings, either on felled trees, or by boring a plug out of living specimins

To the left we see a section through a felled tree through the scarring of the chainsaw we can see the growth rings.

Close inspection of the distances between the rings shows larger gaps in the centre and hence faster growth when the tree was young.

DENSIFOLIUS - With dense leaves.

DENTATE - Toothed, usually referring to leaf edges.

DIGITATE - See Palmate.

DIOECIOUS - Implies that the tree is sexual, that is to say a tree is either male or female, as opposed to MONOECIOUS.

DISC - Applied to the round scar left after pulling leaves off the fir.

DIVARICATE - Applied to branches that diverge.

DOMINANT - The chief species in a plant community, e.g. pines in a pinewood.

DORSAL - The back.

DOWNY - Covered with soft hairs.

EDA-JIN - (Jp) Artificially bleached branches

EDA-NUKI - (Jp) Removal of unwanted branches

EDA-UCHI - (Jp) Harmonizing effect of branches

EDA-ZASHI - (Jp) Branch pruning


EPICORMIC - Shoots arising directly from mature wood.(see Adventitious)

An epicormic shoots on an old Yew.

EPIDERMIS - The outer skin of wood, or leaves.

ERECTUS – Upright.

ERICAECEOUS - The Family of which Heathers are the largest group, including Azaleas, Rhododendrons and Camellias. All ericaeceous plants need to be planted in acidic soil, commonly sold in garden centres. Ericaeceous plants require a pH of between 6.0 and 7.0.

ETIOLATED - The thin pale growth caused by a lack of light, or long exposure to unsuitable light. Such growth has a greatly reduced potential for photosynthesis and limits the plants ability to produce food.

Bonsai kept indoors, in inadequately lit places, will be prone to this

A normal and an Etiolated shoot.

EVERGREEN - Not losing its leaves during the winter. Evergreen leaves vary greatly in length of life from one complete year to 2-3 years in Scots pine, 3-4 in holly, 6-7 in The Norway spruce and up to 15 in the monkey-puzzle pine.


EXOTICUS - Coming from another country.


FAMILY - One of the major groupings of plants, made up of genera whose members have broad similarities.

FASCICLE - Proceeding from a common point like the leaves of a larch.

FASTIGIATE - With close, erect branches pointing upwards.(see Columnar)

FEN - A wet, alkaline, or only slightly acid, peat habitat.

FLORE PLENO - A double flower, usually seen in Cherry and Hawthorn.

A double flowered, or 'Flore Pleno' red flowered hawthorn and the natural flower.

FLORIBUNDUS - With many flowers.

FOETIDUS - Bad-smelling.

FRAGRANTISSIMUS - Sweet smelling.

FRUTESCENS – Bush like.

FRUIT - Ripe seeds and the structures surrounding them. (see) Reproduction

FUKINAGASHI - (JP) Windswept style, with branches in one direction - as if shaped by the wind.

FUNGICIDE - A chemical used to combat fungus diseases.(Also see Cheshunt compound).

FUNGUS - A form of plant life that includes mushrooms and toadstools and also some of the most important microscopic disease producing organisms of plants.

FURROWED - Description of a surface channeled or fissured longitudinally.

GIGANTICUS - Large, gigantic.

GLABROUS - Without hairs. The opposite of pubescent or downy.

GLAUCOUS (bloom) - The blue-white waxy bloom that covers the leaves and fruit of some conifers.

GLAUCOUS (colour) - Used to describe blue, blue-grey or grey-green tints.

GLOBOSE - Spherical in form.

GOBO-NE - (Jp) The tap root. Usually removed from a bonsai, allowing it to sit in a shallow pot.

GRACILIS - Latin, "slender".

GRAFTING - Joining a part of one plant on to that of another, so that they unite. Useful in bonsai to replace a dead branch, or add one in an ideal location.

GRANDIFOLIUS - With large leaves.

GYMNOSPERM - meaning "naked seeded". A class of plants in which the seeds are not enclosed in an ovary. Gymnosperms are conifers

A Gymnosperm, a Pine cone and an Angiosperm, a Peach. Showing the naked seed(s) and the encased seed.

HABIT - The general shape or growth form of a plant; eg: trailing, climbing, bushy, etc.

HABITAT - The natural dwelling-place of any plant.

HAN-KENGAI - (Jp) Semi-Cascade style having almost horizontal growth.

HANKAN - (Jp) Coiled trunk style.

HARIGANEKAKE - (Jp) Wiring a tree.

HOKIDACHI - (Jp) Broom style, Like a wiches besom broom.

HONBACHI - (Jp) Bonsai dish

HUMILIS - Dwarf, low.

HYBRID - A plant arising from the fertilization of one, usually related species by another. Hybrids are often sterile, not producing viable seed so have to be propagated by cuttings, layerings or grafting.

HYPHAE - The underground mass of a fungus.

IKADA - (Jp) Raft style Trunk buried horizontally in ground with limbs growing as individual trees.

IMBRICATED - Applied to leaves overlapping like tiles on a roof.(Juniper like foliage)

INSECTIVOROUS - Plants which obtain nutrients by digesting insects.

The Venus Flytrap

INTERNODE - The portion of stem between two leaf nodes.

ISHITSUKI - (Jp) Root over rock style

JAPONICUS - From Japan.

JIN -(Jp) A dead branch, or tree top, either natural, or created.

KABADUCHI - (Jp) Clump style. Multiple trunks growing from one root.

KANJU - (Jp) Deciduous trees.

KANSUI - (Jp) Watering

KENGAI - (Jp) Cascade style, this may be considered as group name for a number of sub styles such as HAN-KENGAI, or semi-cascade, each of which describes the level to which the tree cascades.

Cascade and Semi-cascade trees

LACINIATE - Applied to leaves cut into narrow lobes.

LANCEOLATE - Lance-shaped. Applied to leaves which are considerably longer than broad and taper to each end.

LATERAL - Applied to leaves that grow on the side of the branchlets. Those that grow on the upper and lower sides are called respectively dorsal and facial.

LAYERING - A method of inducing roots to grow from the trunk, the top of which is then cut off and grown as a new plant.

LEAF BUD - A bud producing a stem with leaves only.

LEAFLET - One of the Individual small leaves' making up a compound or composite leaf.

LICHENS - A plant formed by the symbiotic relationship between a fungus and an alga.

There are some 18,000 recognised species? of lichen spread worlwide, incuding the Arctic. They are good indicators of air quality and seldom grow in polluted areas. .

Two types of lichen

LIMESTONE - Calcium carbonate: soils formed on limestone are alkaline and rich in lime.

LINEAR - Narrow, with the two sides nearly parallel, like the leaf of a yew.

LIVERWORT - A small flat plant related to mosses. This plant is indicative of poor drainage.

A Liverwort

LUTEA, LUTEUS - Latin, Yellow colour.

LUTESCENS - Yellowish.

MACROPHYLLA - Large-leaved.

MAME - (Jp) One of the smallest bonsai sizes.

MEDIUS – Medium.

MERISTEM – Regions of rapidly deviding cells. They are the principle site of growth of either roots, or shoots depending on where the meristem is located. The cambium layers are meristematic regions, producing new bark and wood.

MI-MOMO - (Jp) Fruiting bonsai

MICROPHYLLA - small-leaved.

MISHO - (Jp) Raising a bonsai from seed.

MONOECIOUS - With both male and female flowers on the same plant, as opposed to DIOECIOUS

MORAINE - Debris left behind by glaciers.

MOYOGI - (Jp) Informal upright style.

MUCRONATE - Leaf with abruptly tipped with a hard, short, point.

MULCH - A layer of peat, compost or other organic material spread on top of the soil around a plant, serving both as fertilizer and to retain soil moisture.

MUME - (Jp) Apricot

MYCORRHIZA - A symbiotic root fungus which benefits the tree. Usually be seen as a thin white sheet around the roots on repotting and is particularly noticeable on Pines

NANA - Latin, meaning "dwarf".

NANBAN - A style of Pot. Often described as crude, or rustic.

NATIVE - Not introduced to a location by man.

NE-AGARI - (Jp) Roots exposed

NEBARI - (Jp) (1) Root flare as the tree leaves the soil. A sign of a mature tree.(2) The process of inducing basal root flare, by creating fibrous roots near to the trunk.

Good Nabari on a Japanese white beech

NETSUKI - (Jp) Pronounced "Net-ski". A japanese belt ornament, used to attach a purse to the belt of a Kimono. Netsuki are often used as part of a display.

NE-TSURANARI - (Jp) Roots connected (raft style).

NIGRICANS - Blackish.

NODE - Joint of a branch, or the point of a stem where the bud or leaf is given off.

NUT - A hard, dry fruit.

OBLIQUE - Unequal-sided. Deviating irregularly from a direct line.

OBTUSE - Blunt or rounded at the point.

OPPOSITE - Applied to leaves and branches placed in pairs on opposite side of stems. As in Maples

Opposite and Alternate leaves.

OSIER - Any Willow whose shoots are used in basket making.

OVATE - Egg-shaped, broader at base.

OVULE - The female part of the flower, which on fertilization becomes the seed.

OXYCEDRUS - Juvenile foliage that appears on an over vigourous Juniper.

Oxycedrus and mature foliage from the same jiniperus media x 'Kaizuka'.

OYAKI - (Jp) The Parent tree from which an air-layering is taken

PALMATE - Hand shaped leaf as most Maples.

PARASITIC - Living on, or in a host and consuming it (see Symbiotic)

PARVIFOLIA - Having small leaves

PEAT - Partially decomposed organic matter normally dead mosses or sedges - dug from boggy or fenland areas. Peat would normally be quite acidic, however most peat from Garden centers has been 'neutralised' by the addition of Lime.

PECTINATE - Leaves arranged like the teeth of a comb.

Yew foliage

PENJING - The Chinese form from which bonsai developed.

PERSISTANT - Applied to the length of time leaves and cones of evergreens remain on the tree.(see Evergreen)

PETIOLE - A leaf-stalk. in Autumn abscission will cause seperation at the base of the petiole

PHLOEM – The tubes in which the sap travels throughout the tree.

PHOTOPERIOD - The length of daylight.

PHOTOSYNTHESIS - The process whereby plants use the energy of light as an aid to making growth.

PHOTOTROPISM - The plants inbuilt mechanisim inducing it to grow towards the light. The opposite is Geotropism which causes the roots to grow downward.


PINNATE - Shaped like a feather. Applied to leaves arranged regularly on each side of a common stem. See Composite or Compound


A hedging technique used to re-invigurate an old hedge. Pleaching is achieved by cutting part-way through a stem and laying the stem down. The uncut part allows the sap to flow producing new branches. Pleached hedges are often supported with a weave (as shown) until they can support themselves.

PLICATE - Folded like a fan.

PNUMATAPHORE - An 'air root'. Often seen around trees that grow in swamps, such as Swamp Cypress or Mangroves.

Pnumataphores around the base of a Swamp cypress.

POLITUS - Of shiny and polished appearance.


An ancient method of forest management, where a young tree would be cut down to 6' - 8' and shoots allowed to grow on out of the reach of grazing cattle and deer. This produced more, but thinner timber, requiring less cutting to produce beams, planks, and poles for fencing.

This practice has to a large extent been abandoned, and the trees shown have gone well beyond the stage where the timber would have been harvested, they are Beech trees photographed in Epping forest, just north-east of London.

Coppicing is a similar form of forestry management.

POLLEN - The usually granular, and microscopic spores borne in the anther. Could be likened to sperm in mammals

POLLENATION - The transference of pollen from the anthers to the stigma. A process necessary in, but distinct from fertilization, the actual combination of the pollen, and seed.

Pollenation may be carried out by a number of agents. Insects, particularly bees are the best known pollinators, however birds, wind, and some animals such as fruit eating bats also play their part. The pollen is carried from stamen of one flower to the stigmas of another. To avoid self-fertilisation most plants have the stigma, and stamen mature at different times. On reaching the stigmas, the pollen is transported down the tube they are mounted on, to join with the female seed, fertilising it.

POTASSIUM (K) A chemical found in fertilisers.

PRAECOX - Very early.

PROCUMBENT - Flat, but loosely on the ground

PROSTRATE - Flat on and close to the ground

PSEUDO - Prefix signifying false and not true to type.


PUMILUS - Dwarf, small.

PUNGENS - Having a strong, unpleasant smell.

PYGMAEUS – Pygmy, small.

QUINATE - Applied to pines whose needle-like leaves grow in bundles of five.

A five needled white pine and a scots pine

RADIAL - Radiating outwards from the stem.


The descending flower stalk of plants such as the Laburnum and Wisteria

A Laburnum in flower

RAMIFICATION - The division of branches and shoots - Producing a fine structure.

REPAND, REPANDA - Having a slightly wavy edge.

ROOT BALL - The thickly matted roots and soil filling the pot of a Bonsai. A root ball like this is a sure indication tha the tree needs repotting

ROOT HAIRS - The fine structures at the tips of new roots, through which water and nutrients are absorbed.

SABA-MIKI - (Jp) Split trunk, or hollow trunk.

SAIKEI - (Jp) Tray landscapes with rocks and trees, but not figures


Wing like seeds as those produced by Maples, Elms and Pines

SASHIHO - (Jp) A cutting

SASHIKI - (Jp) Growing from cuttings


SCALES - Applied botanically to the encrusted covering of leaf buds and cones.

SEISHI - (Jp)The training of a Bonsai

SEMPERFLORENS - Always in flower.


SEMPERVIVUM - (1) Everliving.(2) A genus of Alpine plants, which may be used as accent plantings, or in saikei. Sometimes referred to as 'house leeks', or 'hen's and chicks'.

SENTEI - (Jp)Tree planting

SEQUESTERED IRON - A chemical addative allowing acid loving trees to absorb manganese and iron, when growing in neutral soils (see pH)

SERRATE - Having a saw like edge (leaves).

Zelcova Serrata in spring colour.

SESSILE - Leaves growing close to and indirectly upon, the stem without a stalk, or petiole.

SHARI-MIKI - (Jp) A Dead wood effect.

SHAKAN - (Jp) Slanting style.

SHITO - (Jp) The smallest bonsai size.One (of several) interpretations of the word 'Shito' is 'fingertip', hence trees that fit on your fingertip.

A Shito Bonsai, reproduced at actual size

SHOHAKU - (Jp) Coniferous trees (Softwoods)

SHOHIN - (Jp) Bonsai no more than 15cm tall.

SHOKI - (Jp) Bonsai from collected material

SHOKU - (Jp) A display stand on which a Bonsai. or Suiseki may be displayed

SINENSIS - Chinese

SOKAN - (Jp) Twin trunk style. Two trunks growing from one root.

SPORE - The equivalent of a seed in lower plants, such as Ferns, Fungi, or Liverwort.

SPORE - The equivalent of a seed in lower plants, such as Ferns, Fungi, or Liverwort.


A plant that develops an unusual characteristic, such as different leaf or flower colouring. This will usually not be passed on to its offspring, unless vegitateively reproduced as a cutting, or layering.


Two Spruces are commonly grown for timber, and one of them is often available in garden centers, although one of them tends to be seasonal, The Norway Spruce (Picia Abies) better known as the Christmas tree.

The other spruce, the Sitka (Picia sitchensis), was introduced to the UK from Alaska in 1831, and because it grows very fast, is far more widely planted.

STAND - An area of woodland of uniform composition, usually applied to trees grown for timber.

A forestry plantation of Scots pine

STANDARD - A tree or shrub grown on a single tall trunk.

STIGMA - The receptive part of the pistil, surmounting the style, to which the pollen grains 

STOCK - A young rooted plant used for budding or grafting.


With runners that root, and send up another plant, as with Strawberries.

STANDARD - A tree or shrub grown on a single tall trunk.

STOLENIFERA - With runners that root and send up another plant.

STOMA, STOMATA - Minute breathing pores, predominantly on leaves. On conifers, often in lines on the leaf and whitish or pale blue. Stomata are opened and closed by the guard cells.

Stomatic bands on the underside of a conifer.

STRATIFICATION - The winter chilling process needed by some seeds to germinate. This may occur naturally. or in the refrigerator (not freezer).

STRICTA - Upright or straight.


SUCKER - A shoot growing from a bud borne on a root.

SUGI - (Jp) Japanese Cedar.

SUISEKI - (Jp) Viewing Stones. Often displayed with bonsai in formal settings.

SUIBAN - (Jp) Shallow dish, often divided, part without any drainage holes. Used in Saikei and Suiseki plantings.

SYLVATICUS - Of the forest.

SYLVESTRIS - That which grows in a forest. As with Pinus Sylvestris, the Scot's Pine

SYMBIOTIC - The relationship of two organisms which live in harmony (see Parasitic) Mycorrhiza is an example of a plant living in a symbiotic relationship.

SYSTEMIC - An insecticide or fungicide that acts through the plant. It is absorbed by the plant from the soil or through Its leaves and by the disease organism or pest from the plant.

TABULIFORM - Flat-topped or table-like.

TANGEI - (JP) Bonsai material

TEMPERATE - Regions of the Earth having either seasonal, or daily swings in temperature from hot to cold.

TERMINAL - The bud or shoot at the end or top of a stem.

TERNATE - Growing in threes or whorls of three. Applied to the pines that have three leaves in a bundle.

TESSILATED - Describes petals or leaves that are patterned in contrasting shades or colours, often with a marbled effect.

TOCHO-SHI - (Jp) A branch that has grown too long.

TOKONOMA - (Jp) An alcove used to display Bonsai, or Suiseki.

A Tokonoma, with a bonsai, a suiseki and a scroll.

TOMENTOSE - Densely covered with short velvety hairs.

TOPIARY - Training of shrubs and trees into ornamental shapes. The trees are in the ground.

TORIKI - (Jp) Air layering

TORIKI-MOMO - (Jp) A Bonsai obtained by air-layering.

TROPISM - The external stimuli which affect the direction of a plants growth.

TROPICAL - Regions of the Earth with high temperature and humidity .

TSUGI-KI - (Jp) Obtaining bonsai by grafting.

UNDULATE - Waved on the surface.

URO - (Jp) A hollow created by the removal of a large branch.


VARIEGATED - Leaves that are patterned, blotched or spotted with contrasting colours, generally green with cream, white or silver, but sometimes with other colours.

VARIETY - A sub-division of a species.

VASCULAR - Having tubes (veins). All of the more developed plants have veins, the xylem and phloem, to transport fluids.

Cooksonia an early vascular plant, from about 430 million years ago. It grew to about 5cm tall.

VEGATATIVE REPRODUCTION - Non sexual creation of a new plant by cutting, grafting, layering, or Root division.

VIRIDIS - Green.

VULGARIS - Common, vulgar, ordinary.

WHORLS - Where there are more than two growths of branchlets, flowers or leaves, borne in a circle from the same node.

XANTHINUS – yellow

XYLEM – The tubes in which water and nutrients travel to the leaves.

YAMADORI – (Jp) Collecting trees from the wild

YOSE-UE - (Jp) Literally "Trunks planted together" or a group planting.

ZONALIS - Banded

© Allen. C. Roffey 11:32 03/01/2008